This came in my private email:
As many of you know, I just retired from teaching, having spent most of my career in first grade. Over the last few years, my teaching had become gradually more restricted. Instead of running a center-based day, I was required to run scheduled periods of Fundations, Writing Workshop, Reading Workshop, and (this year) of Envision math. To encourage me to retire, my district had made a financial offer that was difficult to refuse. Almost simultaneously, my daughter had announced that she was pregnant with twins. The decision became easier and easier. As the pressures in New York State increased, I decided what I wanted to do after retire: support families, fight the tests, tutor children to learn DESPITE the tests. That would mean running workshops for parents about curriculum. But that’s not what I want to write about tonight. I want to tell you about my last few weeks of teaching, and about my last good lesson.
The district isn’t replacing me next year due to shrinking numbers. Once I announced my retirement, the vultures began to circle – teachers seeking furniture, leveled books, left over supplies. (All of a sudden, my hoarding had value!) Gradually, my room became emptier and emptier. You’d have thought that my teaching would have suffered, but — I LOVED IT, AND SO DID THE KIDS!!! Painting, gluing, research, math projects; WE ALL RELISHED THE CHANGE! It was a very special time – though teary, for some. I’m not sure why my retiring should result in so many sad children (since I wouldn’t have been their teacher the following year), but there you have it.
Driving to school on my last full day, I thought about what I could teach that day in my empty classroom. All I had was art paper, scotch tape, and crayons. The kids had already taken home their markers. I thought about how I could say good-bye. I wanted to help them gain some perspective. I wanted them to know they had each other. (I’d already told them they could email.) I thought about how our paths had crossed and come together so arbitrarily, but how being together in this class had changed all our lives. And then I knew what I’d do!
I gave each child one piece of 12″ x18″ paper. I told them that each child was to draw a path across the paper. It could be straight across or curved or jagged – whatever. We agreed that the paths would be about a fist wide, and had to be drawn in purple. The rest of the paper was to be decorated with whatever else they thought might have been on their paths this year.
Everyone did as I requested after a few false starts. Some of the drawings were quite thoughtful and charming. I then told the kids that we were now going to connect our paths together. I was having a small get together that night, and I told the children we needed something on the wall. Immediately, some of the kids became excited, and tried to put their papers together. I suggested that the kids get on the floor and connect their paths like a puzzle, assemble their work on the floor, and that we’d move it to the wall later. I’d never done this activity before, and had no idea how it would turn out. Over the course of the next half hour, I kept telling myself: Remember, it’s process over product.
As the kids worked, I gradually stepped back. The children were making decisions about which paths connected, which looked best together, which should be moved to a different spot. There were no arguments, even though there were differences of opinion. I handed the kids scotch tape dispensers as needed. I mentioned to one little boy that it was great that there were no fights. He said to me, “Well, remember when I invented a game for the playground and then we all had a fight because I wanted to make all the rules? Remember how you explained to me how a true leader doesn’t make all the rules, but helps others to join in? Well – maybe that’s what we’ve all been doing.”
I was absolutely floored.
That’s when I knew how much I’d miss teaching. That feeling of molding a group and helping them become better together than singly – that’s amazing.
Found this via a stream of Pinterest and other blog posts: National Wildlife Federation (NWF) put together four great camping bingo cards to use with your kids — depending on how wild your backyard is, you may not even need to go far to play.
Here in South Dallas County, you can see much of this stuff with a stroll through a local nature preserve.
Teachers, you can use this idea, with pictures and words, yes?
Here’s the link to get the four cards NWF created in .pdf. If you want to create your own (history, geography, mathematics, language arts) teachers, here’s a blank form in .pdf.
Tip of the old scrub brush to Duncanville ISD’s Judy Henry.
- Back to School Does Not Have to Mean Back Inside for Kids (virtual-strategy.com)
- Mom Bloggers Write the Book – Literally – on Getting Kids Outside in Summer (virtual-strategy.com)
- Be Out There: a FREE e-book by Fadra Nally (and many, many others) (allthingsfadra.com)
- Outdoor play linked to better quality sleep, says guide (time4sleep.co.uk)
Johnson’s first job out of college was teaching Hispanic students, an experience that brought him to see the wisdom of civil rights laws and great education. Who was in TV 2301.01 — and did they realize they’d have met with a president if they’d stayed in their classroom?
The photo was taken on April 27, 1970. It comes from the collection of the LBJ Presidential Library, in Austin, Texas, via Wikimedia. The Lyndon Johnson School for Public Affairs was established in 1970, but this photo may have been too early in the year for a class there.
Anyone have more details? (See update below.)
Update: This photo may have been taken at LBJ’s alma mater, now the Texas State University at San Marcos, judging by this other photo I found at Humanties Texas.
Update, September 10, 2014: Thanks @c_banks.
B3725-18ADate: 04/27/1970Credit: LBJ Library photo by Frank WolfeEvent: President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with college studentsDescription: President Lyndon B. Johnson addresses studentsLocation: South West Texas State University, San Marcos, TexasCollection: LBJ LibraryRights: Public Domain: This image is in the public domain and may be used free of charge without permissions or fees.
Steven Zimmer, a member of the board of the under-assault Los Angeles Unified School District, lays it on the line: Class size is important, and legislative efforts to expand class size in public schools are intended to sabotage public schooling — and that action harms students.
Description of the video at YouTube from the OTL Campaign:
Small class size isn’t about protecting teachers’ jobs or making their work easier — it’s about providing every student with quality attention in the classroom. Steve Zimmer, Board Member of the Los Angeles Unified School District and a former teacher, asks why we tolerate or dismiss crowded public school classrooms when charters and private schools use small class sizes as a selling point?
- Steve Zimmer on Why Class Size Matters (dianeravitch.net)
- Fresno Unified officials plan for extra $15 million (fresnobee.com)
- LAUSD Debating New School Funding Options (losangeles.cbslocal.com)
- Does class size affect the learning process? (voxxi.com)
- ARIZONA: Charter schools seeing growth across the state (charterpulse.com)
- Call Your Representative Today! And Tomorrow Too! (dianeravitch.net)
- Local districts shouldn’t bear burden of funding charter schools (bangordailynews.com)
- Charter schools offer scant edge over neighborhood schools: study (news.terra.com)
- Tend to Wake County schools (newsobserver.com)
- Learning Journal Week 2 (chiraphatch.wordpress.com)
Diane Ravitch gets all the good discussion — of course, she’s much the expert and she’s done several thousand posts in the last year.
Ravitch engaged in a brief back-and-forth with Ben Austin, a guy who contributed to the invention of virtual IEDs to blow up California schools, called parent trigger laws. Under California law, if 50% +1 of the parents of the students at a school sign a petition, the district must take apart the faculty or give up control of the school to a non-public school entity. See my posts repeating the early parts of the exchange under “More” at the bottom of the post.
For reasons I can’t figure, parent trigger advocates claim these moves bring “accountability” to education, though the only effect is usually to fire public school teachers. Oddly, most of the time replacements then are not accountable to the local school district nor the state for similar levels of student educational achievement. But a public school is dead and a private entity has taken its place.
Discussion on the threads at Ravitch’s blog get long.
I responded to a guy named Steve who rather asserted that teachers are just trying to avoid accountability, and so should probably be fired (there’s more nuance to his position, but not enough). A few links are added here, for convenience of readers.
Wouldn’t it be nice if there were absolutely no standardized measures for educational success, and teachers could simply focus on educating children in whatever way they believe is best, and that all schools were funded to their greatest need and without oversight? And students learned to their capacity and everyone would sing kum-ba-yah at the end of the day?
No. The premise of no standardized measures is a bad idea. In that case, as now, we would have no real way to determine whether the system is working.
You mistake testing for reform, and you mistake test results for quality; you assume that test results are the result of what a teacher does in the previous few months, without any assistance (or interference) from parents, the front office, state agencies, and smart phones.
It would be good if we had research to guide teachers in the best ways to educate kids. We have way too little now, and what does exist rarely can break through the complex regulatory web created by NCLB proponents who ironically, and probably sardonically, require any new process to be “research tested and proven,” probably knowing that gives raters more opportunities to fire teachers.
That’s where our dispute lies.
Yes, sometimes it’s best to hold hands and sing “Kum Ba Yah.” Especially in school. Singing is good, music education is important to the development of sterling minds. Group activities to celebrate milestones produces greater achievement.
I gather you’re opposed to that. That’s a key part of the problem. “Reformers” are too often working against what we know works (though often we’re not sure why it works), against what many regard as “frills” like music and poetry (well, Aristotle argued against it, didn’t he?), and against achievement that can’t be used to fire somebody.
It’s a problem of models. A group singing a song together shows some developmental progress, and may show other progress. The Donald Trump “You’re Fired” model is much more titillating to bullies. Bullies tend to rule too many places.
We need a model that works, a model grounded in good theory (“theory” does not mean “guess”), a model that produces some sort of scoreboard teachers can use, day-in and day-out, to determine what to do next.
“Accountability” is a light on that scoreboard, but it’s not the score, and it’s not the game.
And yes, it certainly would be a better world if poverty, racism, abuse and more simply didn’t exist.
Don’t patronize with stuff you don’t believe and you know policy makers won’t work towards.
Poverty is the big one here. We’ve known for 40 years that poor parents as a group cannot produce students who will achieve well academically as well as rich parents, not because they’re not the great parents they are, but because middle class wealth brings learning opportunities for preschool kids and pre-adolescents and teens that mold minds and make them work well; kids in poverty miss that. Until you’ve tried to get your students up to speed on the Constitution with students who do not know how many states there are, what oceans border our nation, who George Washington was, what a Constitution is, how laws are made, or where food comes from, you really don’t appreciate the difficulty.
Yeah, they used to get that stuff in the newspaper. But their families can’t afford newspapers.
And when I get those kids to “commended” levels on the state test, how dare you tell me I’ve failed. Shame on you, and may you be nervous every time you hear thunder, or go under the knife with a surgeon who passed my class.
But this isn’t the world we live in. This is an organized society. When public funds are spent, there needs to be accountability.
There can be no accountability where there is no authority. If I do not have the authority to obtain the tools to educate the students in my tutelage to the standard, why not hold accountable those who are the problem? I produced four years of achievement in the bottom 20% — you’re bellyaching because the top 3% only got one year of achievement? They were already scoring at the 14 year level — sophomores in college. “Adequate Yearly Progress” can’t be had for those students, if you define adequate as “more than one year,” and if they’re already far beyond the material we are required to teach.
Accountability is a tool to get toward quality. You want to use it as a club. I think it should be a crime to misuse tools in that fashion.
You really don’t have a clue what’s going on in my classroom, do you.
I am *so* tired of the educators on this blog berating anyone who suggests that a teacher be accountable for *anything*.
Show me where anyone has said that. I weary of anti-education shouters complaining about teachers not being accountable, when we’re swimming in “accountability,” we’re beating the system most of the time, and still berated for it; our achievements are denigrated, our needs are ignored. If we win the Superbowl, we’re told we failed to win an Oscar. If we win the Superbowl AND an Oscar, we’re told someone else did better at the Pulitzers. If we win the Nobel Prize for Peace, we’re asked to beef up our STEM chops.
I was asked to boost my state passing scores by 5%. Part of the reason Dallas dismissed me was my abject refusal to sign to that (“insubordination”). That it’s mathematically impossible to boost a 100% passing rate to 105% didn’t change anyone’s mind, nor give anyone pause in passing along the paper. College acceptances didn’t count, SAT scores didn’t count, student evaluations didn’t count.
I wish idiots who can’t do math would be held accountable, but you want my gray scalp instead (and larger paycheck; but of course, that’s not really in the system, is it?). Is there no reason you can find to cling to?
There’s a difference between “accountability,” and “pointless blame.” See if you can discern it. Your children’s future depends on it. Our nation’s future depends on it. We’re not playing school here.
People are accountable for the work that they do.
That’s absolutely untrue in about 85% of the jobs in America. W. Edwards Deming died, and people forgot all about the 14 points and how to make winning teams. Are you familiar with the Red Bead experiment?
Most people calling for accountability can’t define it (Hint: in the top management schools, you don’t see this equation: “accountability=fire somebody”).
Can you do better? What is “accountability?” Will you please rate me on the advancements of my students? No? How about on their achievements? No? Can you tell me even what you want to hold teachers accountable for?
Don’t wave that sword when you don’t know how to use it, or if you can’t recognize the difference between a scalpel and a scimitar, please.
You give me white beads, I turn 80% of them red, and you complain about the few that remain white? [If you’re paying attention and you know Deming’s experiment, you know I reversed the color in my example — no one ever catches me on that. Why?] You’re playing the guy who, having witnessed Jesus walking on water, wrote the headline, “Jesus can’t swim!” That’s a joke — it’s not how to make a better school, or a better education system, and it’s not accountability.
NOBODY wants a teacher to be accountable for things that are beyond their control. You have had FIFTY YEARS to develop a means to show that you are accountable in your use of public funds. You have not done it to the public’s satisfaction.
As Deming noted occasionally, we’ve had 5,000 years to develop standards of quality for carpentry and metalwork, and haven’t done it.
The Excellence in Education Commission in 1983 recommended changes to stop the “rising tide of mediocrity” in education. Among the top recommendations, raise teacher pay dramatically, and get out of the way of teachers so they can do their job.
Instead, teacher pay has stagnated and declined, and we have a bureaucracy the sort of which George Orwell never had a nightmare about standing in their way.
But you want to “hold the teachers accountable.”
I suppose it’s impossible to be part of the rising tide of mediocrity and also recognize you’re part of the problem.
Your failure to understand accountability should not cost me my job. I not only want accountability, I want justice, especially for my students. 97% of my students will face invidious racial discrimination when they go out to get a job; many of them (about 50%) come from families who don’t use banks. No checking accounts, no home loans, no car loans from a bank. More than half of the males have never worn a tie. 75% of them come from homes where no novel is on any bookshelf; 30% of them claim to come from homes where there are no books at all, not even a phone book.
They passed the test with flying colors despite that.
That kid who came in not knowing how to write a paragraph went out of my classroom with a commended on his state test, and writing well enough to score 80th percentile on the SAT including the writing part. You have a lot of damnable gall to claim that my work to get him to write his brilliant ideas, well, was wasted effort.
Why won’t you hold me accountable for that? Why do you refuse to look at real accountability?
Don’t claim I’m shucking accountability, when you haven’t looked, and you don’t know what it is.
So – others are now coming in to try and develop what you failed to do. Yup, some of them are shysters. Some of them are ego-maniacs. And some of them are doing so because they have experience and success and they can apply those to helping to improve education and measurement of same.
Good luck to them. Why not let me compete with them. I mean compete fairly — either they don’t get to take money from me merely by existing, or I get to take money from them when I beat them in achievement, and when we take students away from them because they aren’t getting the job done?
You seem to think that these other alternatives for sucking taxpayer money work better. My schools beat charter schools and most private schools in our same population in achievement, in yearly progress, and in a dozen other categories. (Our art students took the top prizes at the state show, beating students from one of the nation’s “top ten high schools” four miles away; the art teachers who got them there? Rated inadequate, given growth plans, funding cut . . . I though you were campaigning for accountability?)
Don’t change the subject. I thought you were for accountability. All of a sudden, you’re against it when we’re talking brass tacks. When we miss a standard, we public school teachers get fired. When we beat the hell out of a standard, we still get fired. When we beat the private schools, the charter schools, and the home schooled kids in achievement, we get zip, or a pink slip.
Accountability? I’d love to see it. You can’t show it, though, so you’re wasting my time and taxpayer money hollering about it.
Some of you even have the temerity to say that the system isn’t broken. Well, maybe it’s not broken for *you*. But it IS broken for the rest of us. And it’s public money here – so – if you are so certain that everything is hunky-dory in what you are adding to the process, well then, prove it. That’s what using public funds requires.
Your kids are in jail? Sorry the system failed you so badly. I had a 90% graduation rate out of my students, in a state where 75% is the state norm and suspected by everyone to be inflated. If your kids are not in jail, and didn’t drop out, that’s good.
Public education isn’t a right (in most states); it’s a civic duty, the thing that keeps our republic alive and democratic. School worries about your kids, sure — but we must also worry about every other kid, too.
What about the 200 other families in your neighborhood? The levels of vandalism and other crimes in your neighborhood depends on the children of those families getting an education. I was able to turn around a dozen of them. The local cops actually did a good job with another dozen.
The local charter school wouldn’t take any of those 24 kids. The private schools took one on an athletic scholarship, but he flunked out his junior year, after football season ended. He was out of school for full six months before we got him back. Three of those girls got commended on the state test despite their having infants; two others got commended and one more passed for the first time in her life despite their delivering children within three weeks of the test. We covered the history of children’s literature one week, convincing more than a few that they should read to their babies, as they were never read to. I got the local bookstore to donate children’s books for each parent in my class, so that their children won’t grow up without at least one book in the house.
We’re teachers, and we worry about the future. Why won’t you allow accountability for that?
Accountability? The word does not mean what you think it means.
Firing teachers is not accountability. It’s an evasion of accountability. It’s destructive of schooling and education. Firing teachers damages children. Even if you could tell who the bad teachers are — and you can’t, no one can do it well — firing teachers cannot offer hope of getting better teachers to replace them.
Why not improve education instead? Who is accountable for that?
Again at Diane Ravitch’s blog, Steve responded that he wants everyone held accountable, including parents and administrators. Good, so far as it goes. I think that’s just lip service. He’s still firing teachers with no way to tell the good from the bad.
- War on Teachers and Education, part 1: Prof. Ravitch’s emotion-touching call for a cease-fire on teachers (timpanogos.wordpress.com)
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 2: Ben Austin of Parent Revolution attacked Prof. Ravitch (timpanogos.wordpress.com)
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 3: Prof. Ravitch’s response (timpanogos.wordpress.com)
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 4: The fight gets a little weird (timpanogos.wordpress.com)
- Why The Business Model is Not an Appropriate Way to Improve US Schools (pdfadown.wordpress.com)
- Teaching Today: One Teacher’s Perspective from Hong Kong (expatteacherman.com)
- Sec. Paige vs. Sen. Wellstone: Testing, Accountability, and Prophetic Pronouncements (cloakinginequity.com)
- Poverty and Our Public Schools (nancyschoellkopf.wordpress.com)
- ‘Parent Trigger’ proponents sue Compton’s school district (Mother Jones)
- Press release from Kirkland and Ellis on preliminary injunction (oddly, there seems to be no follow up)
- “A better parent trigger,” editorial in the Los Angeles Times
- Teacher of the Year given pink slip, Las Vegas Review-Journal
- “Sacramento ‘Teacher of the Year’ rewarded with pink slip,” MSN Now
- “Teacher of the Year gets pink slip,” (Ashley Black of Folsom, California) Mountain-Democrat
- Teacher of the Year let go in Los Angeles, (Bhavini Bhakta) Los Angeles Times (Yes, I’m aware this is Ms. Bhakta’s complaint about protecting teachers with more seniority; my point stands, however — schools cannot tell who are the good teachers and who are the bad ones most of the time, and those who are clearly good, cannot be guaranteed that they will be kept on, or rated well; budget cuts are to blame, not unions)
- 8 Teachers of the Year fired in San Diego, VoiceofSanDiego.org (the article actually lists 13 ToY laid off)
At her blog again, Diane Ravitch responded to Ben Austin’s open letter to her at the Huffington Post.
Earlier today, Ben Austin wrote an open letter to me on Huffington Post. He expressed dismay about my characterization of him and his group Parent Revolution. Read his letter here. Here is my reply.
Dear Ben Austin,
Thank you for your invitation to engage in dialogue in your letter posted on Huffington Post.
You probably know that I have been writing a daily blog for the past fourteen months and during that time, I have written over 4,000 posts. I can’t remember any time when I have lost my temper other than when I wrote about your successful effort to oust an elementary school principal in Los Angeles named Irma Cobian.
I apologize for calling you “loathsome,” though I do think your campaign against a hardworking, dedicated principal working in an inner-city school was indeed loathsome. And it was wrong of me to say that there was a special place in hell reserved for anyone “who administers and funds this revolting organization that destroys schools and fine educators like Irma Cobian.”
As I said, I lost my temper, and I have to explain why.
I don’t like bullies. When I saw this woman targeted by your powerful organization, it looked like bullying. Your organization is funded by many millions of dollars from the Walton Family Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. You have a politically powerful organization, and you used your power to single out this one woman and get her fired.
Your organization sent in paid staff to collect signatures from parents. The teachers in the school were not permitted to express their opinion to parents about your efforts to fire their principal. When you succeeded in getting her fired, 21 of the 22 teachers on staff requested a transfer. That suggests that Cobian has the loyalty of her staff and is a good leader.
Who is this woman that you ousted?
It said: “More than two decades ago, Cobian walked away from a high-powered law firm to teach. The daughter of Mexican immigrants, she said she was inspired by a newspaper article about the low high school graduation rates of Latinos and wanted to make a difference.
“Her passion for social justice led her to Watts in 2009.”
Irma Cobain is now in her fourth year as principal of the school, and you decided that her time was up.
What did her teachers say about her?
“Third-grade teacher Kate Lewis said Irma Cobian is the best principal she’s had in nine years at Weigand Avenue Elementary School in Watts.
“Joseph Shamel called Cobian a “godsend” who has used her mastery of special education to show him how to craft effective learning plans for his students.”
“Fourth-grade teacher Hector Hernandez said Cobian is the first principal he’s had who frequently pops into classrooms to model good teaching herself. Recently, he said, she demonstrated how to teach about different literary genres by engaging students in lively exercises using characters from the “Avengers” comic book and film.”
When Cobian arrived at the Weigand Avenue Elementary school four years ago, she found a school with low test scores, low parent involvement, and divisiveness over a dual-language program. “All the students come from low-income families, more than half are not fluent in English and a quarter turn over every year,” the Los Angeles Times story said.
Cobian decided to focus on improving literacy and raising morale. She certainly won over the faculty.
The day after Cobian learned about the vote removing her, she went to a second-grade classroom to give prizes to children who had read 25 books this year. She cheered those who met the goal and encouraged those who were trying. But she could not hide her sadness.
“I need happiness today,” Cobian told the bright-eyed students. “What do I do when I’m sad?”
“Come here!” the students sang out.
For a moment, her sadness gave way to smiles. But later, she said: “I am crushed.”
Ben, how did you feel when you read that? I felt sad. I felt this was a caring and dedicated person who had been singled out unfairly.
Ben, I hope you noticed in the article that Dr. John Deasy, the superintendent of schools in Los Angeles, praised the plan that Cobian and her staff developed for improving the school. He called it a “well-organized program for accelerated student achievement.” He thanked Cobian for her commitment and hard work.” But you decided she should be fired.
Ironically, the parent who worked with you to fire Cobian said she preferred Weigand to her own neighborhood school where she had concerns about bullying. Even stranger, the parents at Cobian’s school voted to endorse her plan. Your parent spokesperson said she did not like the plan because it focused on reading and writing, but she told the reporter from the Los Angeles Times that she actually never read the plan.
I understand from your letter, Ben, that you somehow feel you are a victim because of what I wrote about you. But, Ben, you are not a victim. Irma Cobian is the victim here. She lost her job because of your campaign to get rid of her. She is the one who was humiliated and suffered loss of income and loss of reputation. You didn’t. You still have your organization, your staff, and the millions that the big foundations have given you.
I am sorry you had a tough childhood. We all have our stories about growing up. I am one of eight children. My father was a high-school dropout. My mother immigrated from Bessarabia and was very proud of her high school diploma from the Houston public schools. She was proud that she learned to speak English “like a real American.” My parents were grateful for the free public schools of Houston, where I too graduated from high school. We had our share of problems and setbacks but I won’t go on about myself or my siblings because my story and yours are really beside the point. What troubles me is what you are doing with the millions you raise. You use it to sow dissension, to set parents against parents, parents against teachers, parents against principals. I don’t see this as productive or helpful. Schools function best when there is collaboration among teachers, parents, administrators, and students. Schools have a better chance of success for the children when they have a strong community and culture of respect.
Your “parent trigger” destroys school communities. True to its name, the “trigger” blasts them apart. It causes deep wounds. It decimates the spirit of respect and comity that is necessary to build a strong community. Frankly, after the school shootings of recent years, your use of the metaphor of a “parent trigger” is itself offensive. We need fewer triggers pointed at schools and educators. Please find a different metaphor, one that does not suggest violence and bloodshed.
It must be very frustrating to you and your funders that–three years after passage of the “parent trigger” law– you can’t point to a single success story. I am aware that you persuaded the parents at the Desert Trails Elementary School in Adelanto, California, to turn their public school over to a privately operated charter. I recall that when parents at the school tried to remove their signatures from your petition, your organization went to court and won a ruling that they were not allowed to rescind their signatures. Ultimately only 53 parents in a school of more than 600 children chose the charter operator. Since the charter has not yet opened, it is too soon to call that battle a success for Parent Revolution. Only the year before, the Adelanto Charter Academy lost its charter because the operators were accused of financial self-dealing.
But, Ben, let me assure you that I bear you no personal ill will. I just don’t approve of what you are doing. I think it is wrong to organize parents to seize control of their public school so they can fire the staff or privatize it. If the principal is doing a bad job, it is Dr. Deasy’s job to remove her or him. I assume that veteran principals and teachers get some kind of due process, where charges are filed and there is a hearing. If Cobain was as incompetent as you say, why didn’t Dr. Deasy bring her up on charges and replace her?
I also have a problem with the idea that parents can sign a petition and hand their public school off to a private charter corporation. The school doesn’t belong to the parents whose children are enrolled this year. It belongs to the public whose taxes built it and maintains it. As the L.A. Times story pointed out, one-quarter of the children at Weigand Avenue Elementary School are gone every year. The parents who sign a petition this year may not even be parents in the school next year. Why should they have the power to privatize the school? Should the patrons of a public library have the power to sign a petition and privatize the management? Should the people using a public park have the right to take a vote and turn the park over to private management?
We both care about children. I care passionately about improving education for all children. I assume you do as well. You think that your organized raids on public schools and professionals will lead to improvement. I disagree. Schools need adequate resources to succeed. They also need experienced professionals, a climate of caring, and stability. I don’t see anything in the “trigger” concept that creates the conditions necessary for improvement. Our teachers and principals are already working under too much stress, given that schools have become targets for federal mandates and endless reforms.
I suggest that educators need respect and thanks for their daily work on behalf of children. If they do a bad job, the leadership of the school system is responsible to take action. What educators don’t need is to have a super-rich, super-powerful organization threatening to pull the trigger on their career and their good name.
Ben, thanks for the open letter and the chance to engage in dialogue. If you don’t mind, I want to apologize to Irma Cobain on your behalf. She was doing her best. She built a strong staff that believes in her. She wrote a turnaround plan that Dr. Deasy liked and the parents approved. Ms. Cobain, if you read this, I hope you can forgive Ben. Maybe next time, he will think twice, get better information, and consider the consequences before he decides to take down another principal.
If Dr. Ravitch is correct in her claims, and her fears for future results, the biggest problem with this parent-trigger farce is that it costs a lot of money, and does only damage to schools, and to students, therefore.
Please continue to Part 4.
This series, on the dustup between Prof. Diane Ravitch and Ben Austin in California:
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 1: Prof. Ravitch’s emotion-touching call for a cease-fire
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 2: Ben Austin of Parent Revolution attacked Prof. Ravitch
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 3: Prof. Ravitch’s response
- War on Teachers and Education, Part 4: The fight gets a little weird
Try the blogs listed at Teach.com, Teach Make A Difference, in their ranking of teaching blogs.
I’m fascinated at the great teacher resource blogs I don’t see listed; one of the criteria for listing is that at least 50% of the posts must deal with education.
Consequently, it tends to be pedantically-oriented towards classroom technique, with a great diminution of education management and especially policy and politics, which are greater problems in education today, for my money (and lack of money, too).
You will find a lot of useful stuff there.
Was I right? Lots of useful stuff?
I’ll let the press release speak for itself for a moment:
For Immediate Release// Contact: Laura Johnson
May 7, 2013
New NCTQ Report: Teacher Salary Growth Slowed as Result of Recession
Over the Last Four Years, Teachers Continued to Get Raises, But at Only One-Third to One-Half of What Raises Were at Start of Recession
Washington, DC – A new report from the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) finds that although teachers continued to get raises following the recession, there was a noticeable slow-down in teacher salary growth on par with that of comparable professions. Post-recession raises have been one-third to one-half of what they were at the beginning of the recession, with almost all 41 districts studied by NCTQ freezing or cutting at least one component of scheduled teacher raises at some point between the 2008-09 and 2011-12 school years. In 80 percent of the districts sampled (33 out of 41), teachers had a total pay freeze or pay cut in at least one of the last four school years.
“There is no question that teacher salary growth took a hit post-recession,” said Kate Walsh, President of the National Council on Teacher Quality. “The good news is that the economy is strengthening and districts are slowly getting back to investing more in teacher pay. The question is, will education leaders choose to go back to the status quo of step increases and regular annual adjustments, or will they evaluate teacher performance and reward the most effective teachers with raises? Expectations for students are increasing, which means the bar is being raised for teachers as well— and a support that should accompany this shift is the ability to reward the best-performing teachers.”
The recession’s impact on teacher raises varied district by district. Cutting annual adjustments, which are raises for cost-of-living and other market forces, was the most common method used to reduce raise amounts. However, no district had a pay cut or freeze every year and eight districts had positive salary growth over the entire four-year period (Fort Worth, Memphis, Milwaukee, New York City, Jefferson County, KY, Fresno, Chicago, and Baltimore City). Of the 41 districts in the sample, Chicago Public Schools had the highest average raise over the four years at 6.5 percent. The report includes detailed information on teacher raises in each of 41 districts from 2008-09 to 2011-12, including the methods each district used to reduce raises. To view the full report, visit http://www.nctq.org/tr3/docs/nctq_recession_salary.pdf.
The report draws on data from the 50 largest U.S. public school districts in 2010-11 (the most recent year for which such data are available). Forty-one of the 50 districts responded to the data request with enough information to be included in the report. NCTQ calculated the average annual salary growth in the 41 school districts from 2008-09 to 2011-12 by analyzing districts’ salary schedules and determining teachers’ movement on the schedules (using information reported by the districts). Salary growth calculations take into account raises for earning additional years of experience (also known as “step increases”) and annual adjustments for cost-of-living increases and other market factors. They do not take into account raises for completing additional coursework.
The National Council on Teacher Quality advocates for reforms in a broad range of teacher policies at the federal, state, and local levels in order to increase the number of effective teachers. In particular we recognize the absence of much of the evidence necessary to make a compelling case for change and seek to fill that void with a research agenda that has direct and practical implications for policy. We are committed to lending transparency and increasing public awareness about the four sets of institutions that have the greatest impact on teacher quality: states, teacher preparation programs, school districts and teachers unions. For more information, visit: www.nctq.org.
- New Report On Impact Of The Recession On Teacher Salaries (howtolearn.com)
- 21st-Century Teacher Education (educationnext.org)
- Pitch for highly paid teachers gets mixed reviews (sfgate.com)
- YUHSD OKs employee compensation plan, adds teachers (yumasun.com)
- Framingham board releases details of teachers’ contract (metrowestdailynews.com)
- Three-year contract freezes teacher pay in Camp Hill School District (cumberlink.com)
- Colorado district choking on the costs of generous retirement policy (educationviews.org)
- St. Albert Catholic teachers accept province-wide deal (globalnews.ca)
- “Destroying student loans on a teacher’s salary,” Tom Ward at Prime Factors
- CGS Logic on teacher pay
- North Carolina teachers among poorest paid in the nation
- Nashville teachers get nearly $1 million from Teacher Incentive Fund
- “Support [Grosse Pointe] teachers with action”
His mother delivered Horace Mann on May 4, 1796, the last full year of the administration of President George Washington.
Mann died August 2, 1859. In those 63 years, Mann became at least the co-architect of the concept of public schools.
Today, few outside schools of education know who he was, or what he did (no, he’s not in the Texas TEKS).
We can get a brief snapshot from the website accompanying the PBS series, Only a Teacher, Schoolhouse Pioneers:
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
Horace Mann, often called the Father of the Common School, began his career as a lawyer and legislator. When he was elected to act as Secretary of the newly-created Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837, he used his position to enact major educational reform. He spearheaded the Common School Movement, ensuring that every child could receive a basic education funded by local taxes. His influence soon spread beyond Massachusetts as more states took up the idea of universal schooling.
Mann’s commitment to the Common School sprang from his belief that political stability and social harmony depended on education: a basic level of literacy and the inculcation of common public ideals. He declared, “Without undervaluing any other human agency, it may be safely affirmed that the Common School…may become the most effective and benignant of all forces of civilization.” Mann believed that public schooling was central to good citizenship, democratic participation and societal well-being. He observed, “A republican form of government, without intelligence in the people, must be, on a vast scale, what a mad-house, without superintendent or keepers, would be on a small one.” The democratic and republican principals that propelled Mann’s vision of the Common School have colored our assumptions about public schooling ever since.
Mann was influential in the development of teacher training schools and the earliest attempts to professionalize teaching. He was not the first to propose state-sponsored teacher training institutes (James Carter had recommended them in the 1820s), but, in 1838, he was crucial to the actual establishment of the first Normal Schools in Massachusetts. Mann knew that the quality of rural schools had to be raised, and that teaching was the key to that improvement. He also recognized that the corps of teachers for the new Common Schools were most likely to be women, and he argued forcefully (if, by contemporary standards, sometimes insultingly) for the recruitment of women into the ranks of teachers, often through the Normal Schools. These developments were all part of Mann’s driving determination to create a system of effective, secular, universal education in the United States.
Mann, Horace. Annual Reports on Education, 1872; Massachusetts System of Common Schools, 1849
Messerli, Jonathan. Horace Mann, A Biography, 1972
Did you catch that? By 1838 Horace Mann figured out that good teachers were the key to improving schools, and so he set about creating systems to educate and help teachers do their work.
Oh, yeah, we knew Diane Ravitch is listening, and working hard to make things better.
- In an earlier post, in comments, we found a page at the National Center for Education Statistics listing schools by name — 55 Horace Mann schools listed there as of May 4, 2013
- A biography brief of Horace Mann from North Dakota schools
Um, no, I don’t think they aim at teachers and educators — it’s a for-profit group, not a charity.
That’s also one of my concerns. Here’s one of a series of short videos Ethos3 prepared, to help you with your next presentation or, you hope, the woman or man who will be making that presentation you have to watch next Wednesday morning at Rotary Club, or at Scout leader training next Saturday, or kicking off the budget planning exercise next Monday (at 7:00 — coffee provided so don’t be late!):
Generally, I’d agree.
But what about teachers, who have to slog through 150 specific items for the state test?
- Teachers could benefit greatly from learning presentation secrets, and making their in-class presentations much more effective.
- No school district in America, public, charter, parochial, or homeschool, will give you time to put together such an effective presentation.
- Most teachers get no coaching on presentation effectiveness, and their students lose out.
- Just because the administrators won’t cut you slack to do it, doesn’t mean a teacher shouldn’t learn about effective presentation techniques, and use them.
In a world of bad bosses, it’s almost impossible to get a really great principal at a school. Teachers gotta slog on anyway.
You won’t have the time to do the presentation your students deserve, but you should try, anyway.
Dreaming for a minute: I wish I could get a team like this to help out with designing a curriculum, figuring out where presentation work, how to give them real punch, and where not to use them at all.
What do you think? Can you tell your story in just three points? Can you reduce a lecture to three key points that would be memorable, and that spurs students to learn what they need to learn?
- The Other (More Important) Value-Added Measure (jaypgreene.com)
- Powerpoint: An Effective Tool to an Effective Teacher (jonathanflorendo1208.wordpress.com)
- “A teacher evaluation program can get rid of the teachers who are allowed to stay because of sonority.” (youknewwhatimeant.wordpress.com)
- What to consider when flipping the K-12 classroom (eschoolnews.com)
- An Ingredient of Quality Education (jonathanflorendo1208.wordpress.com)
- How To Be A Presentation God: Ethos3′s Slideshare Presentation (alexrister1.wordpress.com)
- After PowerPoint, What’s Next? SlideKlowd. (makeapowerfulpoint.com)
- At Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub:
- Also, you really should take a look at Gar Reynolds’s advice, at Presentation Zen; start here, but look around
Darrell’s corollaries of education + technology: No good work goes unpunished, most opportunities missedJanuary 27, 2013
David Warlick‘s blog serves up a lot of stuff to make teachers think (cynically, I wonder whether education administrators can be shoved into thinking at all . . . but I digress).
Recently he pondered his own son’s use of several different kinds of media at once. In a longer discussion that would be worth your while, someone asked, “Has the nature of information influenced the emerging ‘appropriate technologies’ like the digital learning object called an iBook?” David responded:
My knee-jerk response is, “Not nearly enough.” This current push toward digital textbooks, urged on by our Secretary of Education, concerns me. I worry that we’re engaged in a race to modernize schooling, rather than a sober and thoughtful imagining and designing of learning materials and practices that are more relevant to today’s learners (ourselves include), today’s information landscape and a future that has lost the comforts of certainty, but become rich with wondrous opportunities.
What I enjoyed, though, about my experience in publishing an iBook was learning to hack some features into the book that were not part of Apples general instructions for using their publishing tool. This is the ultimate opportunity of digital learning objects and environments, that they can be hacked into new and better learning experiences by information artisans who see what’s there and what it can become.
In a cynical mood, I commented on an earlier statement Warlick made, about how technology has changed the education landscape:
“… we live in a time of no unanswered questions.”
1. The internet and especially portable devices have exponentially increased the probability that difficult questions will be answered incorrectly.
2. For teachers, no longer is it possible to ask a simple, factual question as a teaser to get students to search for the answer, and thereby learn something deeper along the way. Portable computer devices present one more non-print medium in which education appears to be abdicating its duties, and the war. (We missed radio, film, television, recorded television, and desk-top computing; now we’re missing portable devices.)
3. No question goes unanswered, but what is really rare is a question that is worth answering; even more rare, that good question that can be answered well from free internet sources.
Darrell’s Education Technology Corollary: When administrators and policy makers tell educators (especially teachers) they wish to utilize “new technology,” they mean they want new ways to figure out ways to fire teachers, because they don’t have a clue how technology can be used in education, nor have they thought broadly enough about what education is.
Darrell’s Education Technology Corollary Corollary: When a teacher effectively uses technology in a classroom, it will be at the teacher’s instigation, the teacher’s expense, and administrators will get revenge on the teacher for having done so.
I’ve wondered whether I wasn’t too cynical; David offered a solid response.
A couple of weeks later, my cynicism is growing. I’m warning you, teachers, you adopt new technologies at your risk, often — especially in some school districts like Dallas ISD.
It’s a caution only. Teachers, being teachers, will continue to push the envelopes, as Fionna Larcom related at Warlick’s blog. Good on ’em. One out of 500,000 will get accolades outside the education system, like Jaime Escalante did. Many others will face reprimand.
But if education is to improve, this experimentation by teachers must continue. So teachers slog on, under-appreciated and often opposed in their attempts to fix things.
Someday a school system will figure out how to unlock teachers’ creativity, knowledge and skills. Not soon enough.
(Can someone explain to me how Warlick’s blog, with much better stuff than I do here, gets fewer hits? Teachers, not enough of you are reading broadly enough.)
More, not necessarily the opinion of this blog:
- New Pub: Educational Technology as a Subversive Activity (matthewkr.com)
- current conditions and future trends of educational technology for 2012 (compassioninpolitics.wordpress.com)
- Teachers Gravitate to Social Networks Tailored for Educators (edweek.org)
- The Rise of the Teacherpreneur (growvc.com)
- The Right Way And The Wrong Way To Use Technology In The Classroom (howtolearn.com)
- MOOCs are a fundamental misperception of how teaching works (computinged.wordpress.com)
- Top 10 Educational Technology Blogs for Teachers (educatorstechnology.com)
- How To Succeed in Educational Technology (bostinno.com)
- 50 Educational Podcasts You Should Check Out (classroom-aid.com)
- Teacher Leadership, EdTech , #ETMOOC, oh my! (solve4why.wordpress.com)
Here, I’ve been quiet for a few days on these issues. I like to have more facts before forming opinions. Others don’t feel so constricted, though, and one of the key lessons of life we must learn over and over is that too often we must act without knowing all the facts we’d wish to know.
This is one of those times. In Michigan, the governor has been presented bills which he has signed which take away rights of teachers to stand up for themselves, part of a long-standing GOP war on education and teachers. He has other bills intended to legalize carrying guns in schools, which he has not yet signed. In several states, legislatures gear up for sessions starting early next year, with pre-filed bills to put the screws to teachers, cut back education spending, take money from public schools and give it to private groups under a pretext of improving education (I say pretext because all research indicates the public schools perform better, but I digress). In Congress, the GOP demands cuts to health care, mental health care, education, roads, aid to any workers, employed, under-employed or unemployed, and especially in payments to people in poverty or otherwise in economic distress (“no pain to others, no GOP gain”).
Highlighting the intentional sloth the GOP insists on in government, Hurricane/Tropical Storm Sandy hammered one of our nation’s largest cities and most important regions for technology, manufacturing, business, finance and news, and the GOP opposes federal aid to speed up recovery; and in Newtown, Connecticut, a man with learning difficulties and/or behavioral issues broke into an elementary school over-armed with human-killling automatic and semi-automatic weapons legally purchased and legally owned, with which he had legally trained, and murdered 26 people, including 20 children.
My few random thoughts:
- The unions demonized in Michigan, Texas and Wisconsin, saved children’s lives in Newtown. (Yes, teachers; cops and firefighters, too.)
- The teachers who “don’t deserve the pay they get,” according to many speakers in the public fora, laid down their lives in Newtown.
- Teachers who ask for parental support, chaperones for a trip to the art gallery, a working copier, a full set of books for the students, a working grading machine, enough pencils so every kid can write, a working projector and ten minutes to set it up — and too often don’t get any of that, let alone ten minutes for a body break — now are asked by the crazy gun lobby to arm themselves and take on other beneficiaries of crazy gun lobbyists in the halls of the schools.
- “Waiting for Superman” was a film about how teachers are animals, teachers unions are monsters. Turns out Superman was already teaching first grade, in Newtown, but is demonized by the filmmakers as someone or something else.
- Maybe we should rethink who are the monsters, who is Superman, and who deserves our support. Superman’s already in our schools — what are we waiting for? Somehow I doubt that Superman’s merely showing up will be enough to resolve the issues and “fix” our schools.
What are your thoughts?
More, and related material:
- The Hero Teachers of Newtown (dianeravitch.net)
- “Thinking the unthinkable,” at Anarchist Soccer Mom (known better, perhaps, as “I am Adam Lanza’s Mother”)
- Interview by John Hockenberry with Liza Long, author of “Thinking the Unthinkable,” The Take Away on NPR
- Connecticut governor backs stricter gun control (news.blogs.cnn.com)
- How much would you pay someone to take a bullet for your child? (eclectablog.com)
- I’m From Newtown (buzzfeed.com)
- Guns for Teachers: Michelle Rhee’s Group Has No Position (educationclearinghouse.wordpress.com)
- Should teachers carry guns in school? (kfor.com)
- CEA Supporting Teachers and Students Impacted by Newtown Tragedy (blogcea.org)
Another video from super teacher CGPGrey, right up our Texas alley, on the issue of Texas secession:
Minor error: No provision I can find in any Texas Constitution to allow Texas to split. Language to allow a territory to split into as many as five states was pretty standard for new U.S. territories organized during the 19th century; but that didn’t carry over to the Texas Constitution approved by Congress, not in a unilateral way. One needs to recall that when Texas entered the Union, it carried with it lands that eventually became parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Oklahoma and Wyoming — which was part of the scruff with Mexico, which led to the U.S.-Mexico war of 1846 to 1848.
Still a teacher from another state demonstrates a much clearer conception of Texas history and state and federal law than some of the nutcases in Texas. That so many Texans hold so many false perceptions of law and Texas history is an indictment of Texas education, and Texas’s governor and legislature.
You also should check out:
- “One more time: No, Texas cannot secede; no, Texas can’t split itself (2012 edition)“
- “Texas secessionists ecstatic, over what they don’t know“
And, while we’re thinking about it, did you ever comment on the Digital Aristotle concept, which first introduced this blog to Mr. Grey?
- Can Texas Secede from The Union? (cgpgrey.com)
- The other, erroneous view: Fact check: Texas has both the legal and moral right to secede from a corrupt union (sgtreport.com)
- Texas conservatives want to secede, be more like Russia (allianceforanidiotfreeamerica.wordpress.com)
There’s a great story here — maybe more than one.
For “Origin of Species Day,” November 24, the anniversary of the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin’s most famous book, Paul Andersen sent out this Tweet:
Happy Origin of Species Day! Celebrate by learning the story of the comeback stickleback: youtu.be/VE2q5IhjdYM—
Paul Andersen (@paulandersen) November 24, 2012
Who is Paul Andersen? He’s Montana’s Teacher of the Year (for what year, I don’t know). He teaches science in Bozeman, at Bozeman High.
Plus, he’s produced 224 videos, most of them on science issues. They’re short, they’re informative, and they work. Salman Khan, not yet — but here’s one more piece of the great big puzzle, how do we marry education and technology.
Where does he offer continuing education for teachers on how to produce videos? Why isn’t Texas paying big money to him to get him to do that, to teach Texans how to use YouTube to teach?
Andersen’s on the right path, and he’s running hard. Teachers, are you paying attention?
(By the way, I’d quibble a bit on his history — I think Darwin did a fair deal of experimentation on evolution, breeding pigeons for a decade, among other things. But Andersen’s use of stickleback evolution is very good; the little fishies have been observed to speciate in the wild, and then to duplicate that speciation in captivity, thereby confirming what was observed out in the lakes. Thank you sticklebacks!)
Very quickly this gets into serious territory.
Look, I’m an out of the loop teacher in Dallas, Texas — and for all its money and size and importance, Texas is mostly a cultural and educational backwater. It’s not that there aren’t great people in education here, or no great resources — we are shackled to an ancient political system that puts more value on fealty to not-quite-superordinate ideas than on cutting edge education, or mass educational attainment. There is a powerful anti-intellectual stream in Texas politics that believes a hobbled education system will not threaten the political, social or cultural order. Too many Texans take great solace in that, covertly or overtly.
As a nation, we are engaged in a series of great education experiments, using our children as testing subjects, as guinea pigs. How does video fit into making education work better?
Here we’ve got Paul Andersen and his science videos.
Despite my grousing about his not being in Texas, he is active in national circles where the serious questions get asked about how to use video, and other technologies.
A YouTube Education Summit on October 18 and 19 got Andersen out of Montana, where Andersen ran into C. G. P. Grey, another guy who uses video.
Grey responded with this ode to a “digital Aristotle“:
Links and other information Grey offered:
Some thoughts on teachers, students and the Future of Education.
The book kid me is holding in the video is The Way Things Work. If there’s a bookish child in your life, you should get them a copy: http://goo.gl/QdreH
Also I don’t think that the idea of Digital Aristotle is sci-fi, but if you *do* want to read the sci-fi version, I highly recommend The Diamond Age: http://goo.gl/uvbx6
Thanks to YouTube EDU for bringing me out: http://www.youtube.com/education
And Angela for arranging the whole show: http://www.youtube.com/aresearchbug
And Jessica for her amazing note artwork: http://www.youtube.com/seppyca
Full credits and more info at: http://cgpgrey.squarespace.com/blog/digital-aristotle-thoughts-on-the-future-…
CGPGrey T-Shirts available from DFTBA: http://dftba.com/product/10m/CGP-Grey-Logo-Shirt
Andersen replied, questioning how well a digital Aristotle can work, since it takes Aristotle out of the equation:
Links Andersen promised:
Paul Andersen reflects on Digital Aristotle, his trip to the YouTube Edu summit, and the future of education
Digital Aristotle: Thoughts on the Future of Education:
60 Minutes episode on Sal Khan:
Classroom Game Design at TEDxBozeman:
Game on, ladies and gentlemen. Which one is closer to being right?
There you go, from evolution, to evolution of teaching and education. What’s the selection tool for quality education? Which species of learning will survive to reproduce?
Your thoughts in comments, please.
- Bozeman Biology site at YouTube
- BozemanScience.com is Andersen’s homepage and portal
- Anderson’s post on the YouTube meeting
- C. G. P. Grey on five historical misconceptions; good stuff, basically
- The difference between Khan and Austin (ideasandthoughts.org)
- Being a part of the digital Aristotle (doctormo.org)
- Gamifying Classroom Learning (slideshare.net)
- 7 Great YouTube Channels for Science (educatorstechnology.com)
- If social media is like high school, should high schools monitor social media? (o.canada.com)
- 7 Outstanding YouTube Channels for History Teachers (educatorstechnology.com)
- 8 Great YouTube Channels for Math (educatorstechnology.com)
- Billings West High government teacher feted as Montana teacher of the year (missoulian.com)
- Happy Origin of Species Day! (November 24) (timpanogos.wordpress.com)
- Bozeman home to two 2012 Rhodes Scholars (missoulian.com)
- Area teachers star in teacher training videos (amarillo.com)
- Stickleback evolution explained at the Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah (HHMI support)
- “Stickleback genomes reveal path of evolution,” Nature Magazine
- HHMI Lectures: Fossil record of stickleback evolution